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William MarcusMr KramerIB History VEABJanuary 28, 2018Question: To what extent the 13th chapter of Sun Tzu’s The Art of War influence the CIA’s handling of information and information gathering techniques during the Cold War?A: Plan of Investigation: The Art of War’s influence as a military guideline extends from early BCE to the modern day. The Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union was fought mainly using deception and information, motifs commonly found in The Art of War. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the extent to which the 13th chapter, Use of Intelligence, influenced the CIA’s spy handling of information and information gathering techniques during the cold war. This investigation will determine the leader of the CIA, and find their references to Sun Tzu in discussing and . This paper will also determine the key points of the 13th chapter and display how those are presented in the CIA. Sources for this investigation will include an analysis of CIA and KGB reasoning in the Cold War by Epstein, historical newspaper articles during the Cold War, and various historian’s interpretation of the Cold War. Word Count: 143 B: Summary of EvidenceInfluences of Sun Tzu on the CIA’s PolicyPolitical science professor Edward Jay Epstein compares CIA chief Angleton’s actions to those outlined in the Art of War”When I pressed Angleton about these questions, he shrugged and suggested that I read The Art of War” (Epstein, 204)CIA Chief Angleton explains his CIA’s deception strategy in reference to the art of war by commenting, “Sun tzu explained this strategy as succinctly two thousand years ago as anyone can today” (Epstein, 581)Epstein explains Angleton’s overall strategy in reference to the KGB by saying, “Angleton, like Sun Tzu, based his theory of deception on the vulnerability of the very agencies that were supposed to be proof against it, the intelligence services.” (Epstein, 207) Epstein further explains how Angleton utilized Sun Tzu’s teachings to control communication via a concept he coined “the loop”, controlling communication lines coming from and going to the adversary. Former President Richard Nixon cited Sun Tzu three times in his book The Real War, published 1980, in reference to the handling of information and strength against the USSR during the cold war (Epstein 425)The defector Oleg Penkovsky, the CIA’s star GRU (military intelligence) source in the Soviet Union who first provided the CIA with this information. (Macrakis 380)The CIA’s page for intelligence in War opens with Sun Tzu’s quote: “Now the reason the enlightened prince and the wise general conquer the enemy whenever they move and their achievements surpass those of ordinary men is foreknowledge” (Elder)Allen Dulles, head of the CIA from 1953 to 1961: wrote book named The Craft of Intelligence in 1963. Refers to Sun Tzu in 2nd chapter to support his theory that advanced knowledge of events, “is the reason for which the enlightened prince and the wise general defeat the enemy in each one of their actions” (Corneli 422)”I owe my observations on Sun Tzu to the excellent translation of The Art of war, which included notes by General Sam Griffith”. From this, we know that Dulles came to know Sun Tzu’s work two years after having left the CIA. (Corneli 422)Peter Grose, a journalist of the CIA, discuss the importance of information with respect to Allen Dulles, in that “so little of intelligence pertains to wars that were fought, and, so much to wars that were forestalled.” (Grose, 148)Key Points of 13th Chapter:What enables the wise sovereign and good general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge. Hence the use of spies,… Local spies, inward spies, converted spies, doomed spies, and surviving spies. Knowledge of the enemy’s dispositions can only be obtained from other men. Contributions to the Cold WarHistorian Walter Laqueur’s novel A World of Secrets analyzes the CIA’s use of information in relation to Sun Tzu’s thoughts. ”In contradiction to Sun Tzu… knowledge can never be a substitute for policy or strategy, for political wisdom or military power.” (“How Spies Avert Wars”)Edward Jay Epstein in 1985 comments on Laqueur’s criticism with his own: where perfect information can “evade evade all confrontations in which he does not have overwhelming superiority” (“How Spies Avert Wars”)However, Laqueur also comments against Sun Tzu’s relevance to today, disputing that “All attempts to develop theories of intelligence have failed” McNeilly contrasts the notion that the CIA follows Sun Tzu’s principles of intelligence gathering, saying “Lack of human intelligence is one key reason the United States did not foresee incoming conflicts…” (McNeilly 174)Word Count: 591 Works CitedCorneli, Alessandro. “Sun Tzu and the Indirect Strategy.” Rivista Di Studi Politici Internazionali, vol. 53, no. 3, Sept. 1987.Elder, Gergory. “Intelligence in War: It Can Be Decisive.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 26 June 2008, www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol50no2/html_files/Intelligence_War_2.htm.Epstein, Edward Jay. “HOW SPIES AVERT WARS.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 9 Nov. 1985, www.nytimes.com/1985/11/10/books/how-spies-avert-wars.html.Epstein, Jay. Deception: the Invisible War between the KGB and the CIA.Furnivall, Frederick J., et al. Originals and Analogues of Some of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. Oxford University Press, 1928.Ignatius, David. “CIA Novel Brings Sun Tzu Philosophy to Modern War.” The Washington Times, The Washington Times, 21 Apr. 2007, www.washingtontimes.com/news/2007/apr/21/20070421-103141-8531r/.McNeilly, Mark. Sun Tzu and the Art of Modern Warfare. Oxford University Press, 2015.Warner, Michael. “Wanted: A Definition of Intelligence.” Studies in Intelligence, vol. 46, no. 3, 2002.Macrakis, Kristie. “Technophilic Hubris and Espionage Styles during the Cold War.” Isis, vol. 101, no. 2, 2010, pp. 378–385. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/653104.Winks, Robin. “The Wise Man of Intelligence: Uncovering the Life of Allen Dulles.” Foreign Affairs, vol. 73, no. 6, 1994, pp. 144–149. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20046934.Sun Tzu, The Art of War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1963), 144. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/42738671.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A5fb250d4e8b333ea2aa7c04381a7ebf2Allen Dulles, head of the CIA from 1953 to 1961: wrote book named The Craft of Intelligence in 1963. Chapter 2 mentions Sun tzu, in which he refers to him to support his theory that advanced knowledge of events, “is the reason for which the enlightened prince and the wise general defeat the enemy in each one of their actions””I owe my observations on Sun Tzu to the excellent translation of The Art of war, which included notes by General Sam Griffith”. From this, we know that Dulles came to know Sun Tzu’s work two years after having left the CIA. Sun Tzu’s work was present in The Roots of Strategy in 1940. President nixon:  It is probably the former president of the United States, Richard Nixon, who best underlined the total strategy of the Soviet Union during the nuclear era, relating it to Sun Tzu’s thought. In his book The Real War, published in 1980 (12), he mentions Sun Tzu three times.Nixon was Eisenhower’s vice president 1953-1960 during the cold war Nixon writes in the first few pages of his book: “We could be defeated without war”.

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