Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

TRANSPORT health effects of annoying levels of noise (over

TRANSPORT IMPACT ON ENVIROMENTEnviromental impacts resource use,climate change and waste transport infrastructure is heavily dependent on fossil fuel-based systems which are threatened by peak oil forecasts.Transport consumes over a quarter of europes CO2 emissions, even when air and maritime transport are excluded, and the trend is towards rapidly increasing emissions, vehicle scrappage rates are expected to rise rapidly.Research has focused on the effects of climate change and, to a lesser extent, fossil fuel depletion.Local air pollutants, noise and land take the health implications of air pollution are now better understood, and some research has been conducted into acceptable levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulates (PM10;PM2.5). Much less is known about the health effects of annoying levels of noise (over  55 Lden)estimated to affect 67 million european citizens.The increasing demand for travel is leading to the destructions of vital green space and farming land. A greater understanding is needed of the effects on food security and biodiversity.Technology Research into technological improvements has focused on three ways to lessen the enviromental impact of transport supply:vehicles_ease of recycling, use of fuel, noise emitted.fuels_reducing the dependence on fossil fuels,cutting emissiones and energy use.Infrastructure_reduced land take and noise,water and air pollution.There has been less cosideration of technological improvements to enable the transport system to adapt to the impactes of climate change. While new technologies have considerable potential,they face problems with their uptake and distribution. Research is still needed to identify those technologies which are likely to have the highest succes in implementation: ease of use, wide upplicability,and limited infrastructure requirments.Waste existing cars contain materials such as lead,mercury,cadmium, hexavalent chromium and other enviromentally harmful substances,By weight, about three_quarters of a car is steel and aluminium,which is recycled. the rest, which is mainly plastics, is disposed of by incineration or in landfills. cars also contain dangerous liquid substances (anti_freeze,brake fluid,oil, etc) that are harmful to the environment if not handled properly.There has been relatively little recent research on this problem.Air pollution over 100,000 deaths are brought forward each year by transport_related pollutants, of which over 70% are generated in urban areas.Research has shown that most local air pollutants have been reduced significantly through technological improvements since the mid_1990s, through some, in particuler particulates and NOx, are still a soures of considerable ill health and premature death,especially among vulnerable groups of the population. Future projections show that some emissions can be decreased with the aid of technology, but especially in urban area the increasing demand for travel will cause more problems with pollutants auch as NOx and PM.The emprovements in emissions from the use of catalytic converters are being compromised by the increasing amounts of traffic and the identification of new pollutants whose health effects are still poorly understood,such as smaller sizes of particulate matter is also neccesary, as these tiny particles seem to have the most adverse effects on human health. Air pollution hot spots are highlighted by Australine research that points to locations such as street canyons, tunnels and intersections as area where pollutant load levels are much higher than the recorded averages for the area.These findings show that an area average isnot effectively measuring the exposure that different groups of people are receiving. Research in Ireland into strategies for reducing diesel particulate emissions has estimated that in 2003 over 3000 tonnes of diesel particulate matter was emitted nationally by the fleet of some half a million diesel vehicles. The majority of these emissions occurred in urban area and from light goods vehicles (responsible for 60% of all emissions).Older vehicles with EURO 1 or older engines were responsible for some 55% of these emissions. These issues suggest that emissions reduction strategies can be broadly grouped under the categories of technological emprovements to vehicles, use of cleaner fuels, better inspection and maintenance programs and better fleet management. Such research has also highlighted the danger of focusing particulate emission reduction strategies on reducing the total mass of emissions, without sufficient attention to the most damaging volatile matter (Evalution of options for reducing Irish diesel particulate emissions.)Noise There is increasing evidence of health effects from noise, particularly through aggravation of heart coditions. Recent estimates of noise_related health impacts in the Netherlands suggest that current noise levels may be associated with annoyance  in 1.5 _ 2 million people (out of a population of 16 million), disturbed sleep in 0.5_1 million and about 220,000 cases of hypertension. in total,1_2% of the total disease burden could be attributed to traffic noise that 67 million people in the European Economic Area are exposed to noise levels in excessive noise.Extrapolation from a German study suggests that perhaps 20,000 deaths might be brought forward in Europe each year as a result of traffic noise.A Swiss study into noise costs has found that the external costs of (road and rail) transport noise amount to some 0.25% of national  GDP, with some 88% of this attributable to reduced house rental values and 12% down to various health costs associated with noise(NOISE COSTS).The implication of this for transport policy are considerable, especially with predicted  increases in both ground_based and air transport.Climate change research on climate change for the UK government from the tyndall centre for climate change research has shown that limiting carbon emissions from transport in order to achieve sustainability targets will be extremely difficult to achieve. There is a clear view that any forthcoming technological advances in transport (especially aviation ) will at least partially be offset by increases in demand and intensity. The potential implications of climate change on biodiversity, health, society  and the economy have been well documented.

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