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To lack knowledge. This is due to the fact

To what extent is confidence the opposing idea of doubt? Some believe that the more knowledge a person has the more doubt increases, but the less knowledge a person has the more confidence they are. Confidence is the extent of how much a person believes and has faith in something or someone. Doubt is having an uncertainty of something. This essay will focus on the link being knowledgeable and being uncertain as well as being less knowledgeable but being confident. From my personal perspective the statement being discussed is inaccurate due to the fact that being knowledgeable can increase certainty as the person would know more about a particular subject so if a person is knowledgeable in art or natural sciences they would be more confident in the claims made. If every knowledgeable person was doubtful about the claims they made then there would be no accuracy in facts or education. It has been discovered that if someone lacks immense knowledge they may not have an idea that they lack knowledge. This is due to the fact that they are unable to properly evaluate themselves and their knowledge where they then end up over evaluating themselves to think they are more knowledgeable that they truly are. This is called the Dunning-Kruger effect. There has been experimentations done showing that humans are poor at assessing their own abilities. A popular experimentation proving this, was one from Cornell University in 1999 conducted by both psychologists, Justin Kruger and David Dunning. This experiment showed that if someone lacks knowledge they will be more confident in what they are saying due to the fact that they do not have the knowledge to properly evaluate themselves, this is connected to the prescribed title as it shows that when someone knows little they are more confident but when someone has the knowledge to evaluate themselves they also doubt them self because they do not over evaluate themselves. In this experiment it was “tested whether people who lack the skills or abilities for something are also more likely to lack awareness of their lack of ability” (BBC, 2017). This experimentation was inspired by a past event that had happened, a failed bank robbery. The robbery was attempted in 1995 by a man named Mcarthur Wheeler who was misinformed by the fact that by rubbing lemon juice on a person’s face can help make them invisible as it was used in invisible ink.The experiment that Kruger and Dunning had conducted was with undergraduate students and they had tested some of humour, some on grammar and some on logic then asked them to evaluate their scores. It happened to be that the students who estimated the highest scores for themselves scored lowest, while students who estimated lower scored higher. This was due to the fact that people are misinformed about how skilled they truly are at something.Natural Sciences requires both knowledge and confidence in order to create facts or claims. Natural Sciences is a form of the sciences that focuses primarily on the physical world. Karl Pearson, the English statistician and geneticist, is commonly credited with first describing the concept of uncertainty as a measure of data variability in the late 1800s (Salsburg, 2001).  In physics an example of the Dunning Kruger effect would be climate change. The Dunning Kruger effect is seen within us humans and the belief and uncertainty of climate change.  According to The Royal Society “mathematical analyses of the risk associated with climate change have revealed that as uncertainty increases, so often does the risk” (Lewandowsky S, Risbey JS, Smithson M, Newell BR, Hunter J. 2014).  According to a study conducted by Yale in 2010 it was found that about 63% of Americans do believe that global warming is currently happening. However in the study it was discovered that “Americans lack some of the knowledge needed for informed decision-making in a democratic society” (Leiserowitz, Smith, Marlon, 2010). Some examples stated in the study were:”That only 57% were informed that the greenhouse effect meant that there is trapped heat in the atmosphere due to gasesThat 50% knew that global warming is mainly caused by mankindThat 45%  comprehend Earth’s surface is trapped with heat due to CO2 emissions That 25% have been informed of coral bleaching or ocean acidification” (Leiserowitz, Smith, Marlon, 2010)Due to citizens having misinformed knowledge about the environment or not being educated about it and not knowing proper facts in leads them to doubt the fact of the existence of climate change due to global warming. By being misinformed and believing incorrect facts leads to the person being confident in the knowledge that they carry and unaware that they have been misinformed. This is a good example of when someone has less knowledge and happens to be more confident, as they have been misinformed with knowledge and are not able to see that they are missing information which is why they are able to make decisions faster without doubt. As for scientists who have more knowledge on climate change they have uncertainties as they understand that there is still missing information yet to be discovered but they are aware of the climate change and the future of climate change to certain extents.Art is a form of expression allowing humans to apply their creativity and emotion, the importance of confidence in art is very important because without confidence it kills creativity. Art can be in the form of music, literature, dance, visual arts, theatre and more.  In art you need to have the confidence to be able to do the creation process. As art is a process that is created from within you, the self confidence that one may have can effect the art they create, if someone has more confidence they will take more risks in trying something new and experimenting which can create better art. It has also been found that art education can build confidence. In an article by PBS they had stated that “studies have shown that when children participate in art activities with peers, the feedback they give to each other builds self-respect by helping them learn to accept criticism and praise from others” (Cheryl Lock, Turn to the Arts to Boost Self-Esteem, 2018). This shows that by learning through art, artists are able to become confident as they learn to take risks and experiment with art.However uncertainty does not necessarily always mean not knowledgeable. John Cage was an artist who used randomness in his artwork. In Cages exhibition “The Kettles Yard”  according to David Spiegelhalter, it presented “wonderful film of assistants reading computer-generated random numbers off a list, which determined which of a row of stones were to be chosen, which brush to use, and the position of the stone on the paper; Cage finally paints around the stone, stands back and announces the results as “beautiful”” (David Spiegelhalter, Understanding Uncertainty: Pure randomness in art, 2010). For the exhibition Cage had also used chance for the display of the work, computer-generated coordinates were used to make the choice and control where the pieces were hung in terms of height and position, if pieces were to be removed or added and this was through the process of randomness (David Spiegelhalter, Understanding Uncertainty: Pure randomness in art, 2010). This shows that being uncertain and using randomness can actually benefit in art and the way a piece turns out and that knowledgeable does not always mean confidence as in this example knowledge is needed for the programing for the computers.It is evident that the less knowledgeable someone is, the more confident they are and the more knowledgeable a person is the more doubt they have. This was evident in the climate change example as it shows that when someone is more knowledgeable they have alternative questions as well are able to know that there is still knowledge they do not know of which is why they doubt while someone who is less knowledgeable will be more confident since they are not aware of what they do not know which is why they do not double think what they know and therefore end up being more confident. The opposite is seen in art. An artist with knowledge would be more confident to try out new things as they know the outcomes and are also able to know the process of experimenting


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