Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

This related to Project based learning so that it

This
article aims to describe the implementation of the project based learning to
improve students speaking ability.  Project
based learning is a kind of learning method in which it uses students center
approach. It is also applicable for all levels of the students.  As a method, project based learning engages
students to make a product which is based on several processes. This article
present several information for  project
based learning which is really potential to improve students` speaking ability.
The information is started from the background of project based learning to
improve students` speaking ability, the characteristics, the steps, the
advantages and disadvantages of project based learning. Viewed from the characteristics, steps
and some others research studies, Project based learning can be used to improve
students’ ability, motivation, and interest in learning English. From those
previous researches, project-based learning can indeed to improve students
English language skills, mainly speaking ability. Therefore, this article is made
to provide an overview and information related to Project based learning so
that it can be used as additional knowledge especially for teaching speaking.

 

Key word: Project based learning, students` speaking ability

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

1.     Introduction

In
English learning, there are four kinds of skills must be mastered by the
students. One of them is speaking skill. By speaking, the students can maintain
their idea and also social relationship by communicating with others students. The
students study English in order they are able to speak fluently by using English.
That is why, most people say that the ability to speak in English is a product
of English learning. According to Guang (2007: 1), speaking is the ability of
someone to express or communicate orally by using language. People express or
communicate their idea, feeling, opinion and also information by using
language. It means that there is a process of people in speaking in order to
produce, receipt, and also process the information through communication.  According to the national standards in Indonesia (2006),
speaking skill is one the goal of English learning in the schools. By
learning speaking, the students are able to speak fluently in order to give
opinion or information by using English. The teachers need to teach speaking
for the students in the school to increase the their qualities of performance
or activities. These activities are important for students to build their
knowledge and skill, as well as increase the student’s confidence in the classroom.

The
students need much exercise and also practice for their speaking skill, however
there are many problem occur in students` speaking learning process. One of the
problems is feeling anxiety. Brown (1994), says that anxiety becomes one of the
problems faced by students in speaking class. The students are anxious because
they are afraid to speak, and also judged as incomprehensible students. They
are also anxious because they avoid making mistake. It is also same with the
researcher observation. Most English teachers said that teaching speaking was
difficult because some students were afraid to speak, less of vocabulary and
they tried to avoid making mistake. Now, the problems itself is not only come
from the students but also the teacher. Some teachers say that speaking is a
skill while teaching is a model. That is why teaching speaking is difficult for
some teachers.  Therefore, the English
teachers usually train the students by using traditional learning.

To
overcome those problems, one of the model that can be used by the teachers is
project based learning or PBL. According to Patton, (2012:13), project based
learning or PBL refers to a method in which it allows the students to design,
plan, and carry out an extended project in the form of product, publication,
and presentation. Project based learning differs than traditional learning in
which project based learning more focus to the process in making a product. In line
with this, Fragoulis (2009), says that PBL will engage students to communicate
purposefully in  the authentic
activities. Authentic activities are important for the students, so that the
students will have the opportunities to use the language more in natural
context.

            This article is supported by previous researches.
The
previous research which entitled “The Implementation of Project-Based Learning
to Teach Speaking a Spoken Advertisement for the Eighth Graders of SMPN 40
Surabaya” written by Humairoh (2014). The result shows that project-based
learning is a model of learning in which it is effective to teach speaking.
Based on the research, the students were also very enthusiastic, and more
creative in the classroom.

The second research was from Herlina Dewi (2016) which
entitled “Project Based Learning to Improve Speaking Skill”. The researcher used
several data collections such as observation sheets, tests, and student
questionnaire sheets. The result showed
that, there was an improvement of speaking skill of the students in each cycle.

 

2.    The characteristics
of Project based learning

Project-based learning is a method
of learning that is suitable for all levels of education. In addition, project based learning is
also effective to be applied to improve the skills of students. However, the teachers
should know in advance some characteristics of project based learning, because
project based learning is different from project. According to Buck Institute for
Education as cited in Made (2000, 145), Project-based learning has several
characteristics.

a.
 Students make decisions and frameworks.

Decisions or framework regard to
what should be done by the students related to the topic given by the teacher.
The teachers give the authentic topic and the students define and create a
framework in groups in the classroom.

b.
 Problem solving.

In this case, problems mean the issues
or questions that approximately appears when doing a project. This problem will
deal with the successful execution of the project. Project based learning is a
model of learning in which it uses students centered approach. In this case,
the students try to solve the problem in groups that may faced and the teachers
guide them.

c.
 Students design the process to achieve results.

In project based learning, the
students determine the range of activities or steps that must be done toward
the progresses of the project. This is different with traditional learning
where the process is based on the teacher and it is rigid. In PBL, when the
process of achieving the data is not match with the step with the activities
carried out, the students are allowed to gather with the group to discuss the steps
or processes.

d.
Students are responsible for obtaining and managing the information gathered.

Project based learning is based on
student center approach.  the students
try to get and manage their own information. The information obtained is related
to kinds of topic or project. So it is also same with the managing the information,
it is entirely the responsibility of each student or group work. On the other
hand, the teacher is only a facilitator.

e.
 Students conduct continuous evaluation.

Evaluation is not only done at the
end of the activity, but also done continuously or gradually during the
activity. Therefore, a mistake in the process and change of the data is a
natural process. This is where the role of teachers as a facilitator or
controller of the implementation process of project based learning.

f.
 There is Product

Project based learning is one of the
learning model done to produce the product. The products they completed may be
written or presented in front of the class. While presenting, there will be
evaluation. Evaluation done by teacher with student. If there are some errors
or mistake toward the product presented, other students must not blame, but it
must be understood, discussed and improved into a better project.

3.    The steps in
implementing PBL

Project
based learning is a learning method that prioritizes the process before
producing a product. In addition PBL is also done in group work. First, the Teachers should know the
characteristics of PBL and most importantly the teacher knows the steps how to
implement PBL in the classroom. According to The George Lucas
Educational Foundation
(2005), describes the steps of learning by using learning model project based learning (PBL) as
follows:

1)   Start
with essential question

Learning activities begin by
providing challenging questions to students at the beginning of the lesson.
Give the question that lead students to speak in the context of project-based
learning and assign tasks to students to undertake a controlled activity. The
questions conveyed were the questions that relate to the real world and began
with depth investigation. For example, teaching drama. Commonly, drama can be
defined as the performance of the dialog that relates with social facts of
life. Drama also can be expressed  as a
mirror of real life. In this case, there is a question and answer session
between students and teachers related to the topic.

2)   Design
the plan for project

The second step is the students with
the teacher guidance prepare the plan for the project. The students determine
the range of activities to be undertaken in the project from the beginning to
the end of the project. There are several activities that can be done by the
student related to this steps, such as determining project size, determine the
rules of the project, select the activities to be carried out with the response
or answer to essential questions, and determining materials and tools  required.

3)   Create
a schedule

In this step, the students with
teacher guidance are required to create a schedule or timeline of activities
based on the planning. The purpose of this activity is to provide students with
deep understanding in order to undertake a large project.  A group work needs a good schedule to make
the project work as planned. Nevertheless, this activity is attempted to be
done as simply and do not confuse the students. For example: the teacher can
give an example of the schedule of activities. After giving a briefing from the
teacher, the students can do the activities as regular learning.

4)   Monitor
the students and the progress of the project

In carrying out the project,
students get monitor from the teacher. The teacher monitors what have been done
or not by the students, such as some difficulties that may can not be solved by
the students. This will make a teacher not only as a working control but also
mentoring process. Mentoring means the students control the process and help
the students to give the information or help their problems.

5)   Assessment

Assessment is done toward the
process of the students in order to make project or authentic assessment. Authentic
assessment means the assessment that is used by the teacher to measure the
students achievement through process. Assessment is also used to measure the student
achievement competence. In project based learning, the teacher assesses the
process or the steps of activities conducted by the students to make a product.
However, the teacher also need to measure the product at the end of the
project. Therefore, the teacher is required to make the various assessments as
authentic as possible by utilizing the rubric.

6)   Evaluation

Learning activities end with project
evaluation. The activities are undertaken by teachers and also students to reflect
on project implementation. Students are required to present the project, revealing
what they do and understand during the project. In addition, students are also
asked to express their feelings and what they have got as new experiences. In
evaluating the students, the teachers or the students can provide feedback,
comment, and suggestion.

 

4.    The advantages and
disadvantages of project based learning

  In the 21st  century, PBL is one of the effective learning
methods for students.  The  characteristics and
how PBL is applied, PBL leads to student center approach of learning,
prioritizing the process to achieve results and reflection of learning. Those can be said as advantages of PBL. But, we must also pay attention to some
disadvantages of PBL. Here are some advantages and disadvantages of using
project based learning in the classroom.

A.     The
advantages

 1.                               
PBL increases students’ learning motivation.

The teachers can use project
based learning in order to increase students motivation. Through PBL,
the learners make their projects based on several processes. The students will
do the process which suit with the interests and abilities. That is why project
based learning highly motivate the learners. 
Another case, Project based learning allows students to work as a group,
create several process in order to produce the complex works.  That is important to get students involve in
learning. When all the students feel that they are involved in learning, it
means that they also feel motivated.

 

 2.                               
PBL increases students’ academic achievement.

Project based learning or PBL is a
kind of model in which it allows students to make a project based on several
processes. That is why the process of making a project becomes the most
important characteristic in doing the project. When the teachers can
successfully implement project based learning, the students will get skill,
knowledge and also attitude. In project based learning, the students will use
their theoretical and also practical knowledge to arrange the potential solution
to create a task or problems.

 3.                               
PBL increased collaboration ability.

In project-based
learning, the teachers will ask the students to work together in a group. Within
the group, the students will learn how to work collaboratively. In
collaborative learning, the students solve the problems and investigate what
they learn. The students discuss their work and share their ideas, resources,
and evidence of the data. In project based learning, there is no diversity of
each students. All
students have the same opportunities to do a product and develop their skills
using collaborative learning. Another important, by using project based
learning, the students will try to stop their monotone such as only asking and
answering the question, but through project based learning the activities will
be more dynamic.

 

 4.                               
PBL increases the ability to communicate.

Project based learning requires
students to make a project which is organized and they should communicate it in
a team. In a team or group, the students will learn how to explain, share their
idea and also convince the information. Besides, within the group, the students
also learn how to advocate and listen others. Those are the important of
project based learning for students. As teachers, they should know how to teach
students using project based learning in order to make the class become
effective

 5.                               
PBL increases students’ creativity.

Project based learning is done
toward the group. In a group, each student will meet others with different
skill and also learning styles. The different skill and  learning styles will create a lot of idea to
make a project. When the students can make the successful preparation of making
a project, those different learning styles and skill will affect their
creativity to make the project itself. However, as teachers, they should know
that those diversities of skills and also styles will not affect students with
slow learners in discrimination. The teacher must create a process in order to
make a project effective for each students.

B      The
Disadvantages

1.      Project based learning requires a lot of
time.

Project based learning is
characterized by the process or steps before making a product. The steps
consist of  starting with essential
question, design the plan for project, creating a schedule, monitoring,
assessment and also evaluation. Project based learning provides complex
problems which relate to real world. That is why in conducting project based
learning will need a lot of time.

2.
      Project based learning requires a
lot of cost and tools.

Project
based learning is one of the model of learning in which it requires tools and
also cost to make a product. Example in teaching drama. The teacher can ask the
students to make a drama performance at the end of the study. For that case,
the teacher will ask the students to do several processes or steps in before
performing the drama. Drama performance requires a lot of tools and also cost.

3.       Some
students may not feel interested in PBL.

Project based learning is done
toward the group. Within the group, there might be some students do not have
the ability to work as a team. Those will affect them to be difficult to follow
the class. When they get some difficulties than they will not interested in
learning. The teachers should consider the effective way in teaching using
project based learning.

 

4.       Teacher needs more control

In
project based learning, the students create the steps and also process in order
to make a project. The flow of the information or the result really depends on
the students understanding.  That is why
the teachers usually think how to guide and control them in effective way.

            5. Conclusion

From
the above explanation can be concluded that project based learning is a method
of learning in which it is really potential used to improve students speaking
ability. There are several steps how to implement project based learning in the
classroom such as start with essential question, design the plan project,
schedule, Monitor
the students and the progress of the project, asses and evaluation.
Project based learning has several advantages and also disadvantages. Those
advantages can be used by the teacher as the start of learning, while the
disadvantages, the teacher may create the appropriate solution to solve it.

x

Hi!
I'm Darlene!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out