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Chapter 2

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Review of
Literature

The indication for
the function of mycorrhizal fungi in soil aggregation dates back to
the 1950s (Six et al., 2004). Mycorrhizal associations are well-known
to play a critical role in soil aggregate establishment (Rilling and
Mummey, 2006). Mycorrhizal fungi especially arbuscular fungi are
prevalent obligatory biotrophic symbionts and associate with up 85%
of the plant species (Smith and Read, 2008). Arbuscular Mycorrhizal
fungi (AMF) penetrate the cortical cells of plant roots and form a
special tree like arrangement inside the cortical cells acknowledged
as arbuscules while storage tissues are named vesicles which can be
identified through microscope. Moreover, extraradical mycelium of AMF
can widely flourish in the soil layers to contact nutrient reserves
(Hodge et al., 2001). AMF associations provide the nutrients such as
nitrogen and phosphorus to host plants. In retunes, they obtain up to
20 percent assimilates of the host plant (Parniske, 2008).further,
AMF are also capable to develop soil structure and ameliorate plant
biotic (Pathogens) and abiotic (Drought, salinity and high
temperature) stresses (Smith and Read, 2008; Gianinazzi et al.,
2010). Hence, mycorrhizal associations play a significant role in the
ecosystem and contribute to sustain the biodiversity of plants
(Rilling and Mummey, 2006).

Soil texture,
chemical composition and mycorrhizal association

Erlandson
et al. (2016) elucidated the influence of soil environment and the
willow host-species on mycorrhizal fungal communities across
hydrologic pitches in North America. Soil organic matter, moisture
content and pH stoutly envisaged changes in mycorrhizal communities’
composition. In disparity, enlarged mycorrhizal affluence strongly
allied with the higher plants offered phosphorus. The 93 willow trees
tested for mycorrhizal fungi incorporated seven willow species. It
was found that host uniqueness did not manipulate mycorrhizal fungi
richness along with community composition. Also, was there no
well-built indication of willow host inclination for mycorrhizal
species. Structure examination advocates those mycorrhizal
mutualistic contact groups are not extensively nested and modular.
Across environmental gradient, mycorrhizal fungi niche determined the
fungus species accessible to combine with the host plants in a
particular habitat..

Frouz
et al., (2016) examined the impact of soil quality, mycorrhizal
differing qualities and group organization on the plant groups
accompanied by indispensable progression. Substrates from 10 and 50
years old post-mining locales were sterilized. Suspensions from the
impulsive and late substrates, each one allied in two dilutions (low
and high mixed qualities) were exploited to inoculate each substrate.
Substrates were propagated by means of three early and three delayed
successional plant species. Grass species were by the side of these
defenses remarkably receptive to the substrate quality and were not
moved via microbials differing qualities whilst herbs responded
insistently to microbial variations that influence species changeover
in progression, as of early development of herbs not indicative of
solid reactions to microbial groups to late progression herbs
signifying thorough reactions with grass species responding to add-on
conditions. In addition, complement supply and shrinking of microbial
grouping was responsible to sustain grass species over herbs.

Geel
et
al.
(2015) inspected the decline in diversity and transformations within
community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of
apple trees by getting bigger orchard managing intensity crosswise a
regional scale. Molecular and trapping culture practices were used to
calculate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity along with community
composition. Consequences show that organic orchard managing and
restrained fertilization may well maintain varied arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi communities on apple trees.

Alguacil
et
al.
(2014) carried out a research to observe the alterations in the
composition and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal
communities interceded through managing practices in Mediterranean
soil are correlated with raises in soil texture and biological
activity. The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was
positively interrelated with soil factors associated with soil
composition and biological activity. The treatments concerning to
plowing to a great extent changed the composition of the arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungal communities, except influence considerably the
range and richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with regard to
treatment NC (natural plant cover). The treatments based on the
accumulation of oats straw show to be the most appropriate
organization strategy on account to promotion of the arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungal diversity and biological activity in soil.

Chanda et
al. (2014)
portrayed the segregation and identification of arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for
phytoremediation in soil polluted with paper-mill effluents. The
influence of effluents was noticed on mycorrhizal colonization as
well as mycorrhizal fungi spores count and regression study reavaled
that mycorrhizal fungi are extensively and positively allied through
diverse physiological and chemical properties in the contaminated
soil. It
was found that Glomus
was
the most prevailing isolated fungal genus of which three dominant
species;
Glomus macrocarpum,
Glomus
fasciculatum,
Glomus mosseae have
been recognized. It accomplished that the mycorrhizal fungi has a
important role as a future bioremediation mediator for
re-habilitation
of the contaminated sites with different metals.

Wang et al.
(2014) made the community investigation of mycorrhizal fungi in
roots of P. trifoliata and C. reticulata. Morphological study could
not reveal the definite mycorrhizal fungal colonizing status in
roots, fungal colonization, hyphal length and spore density. Intended
for this, phylogenetic investigation was achieved which confirmed
that 173 screened mycorrhizal sequences bunch in at least 10 distinct
clusters (GLO1~GLO10), belong to the genus of Glomus. Among them,
GLO1 clade (54.43%) was the most frequent in roots of trifoliate,
whilst GLO6 clade (35.00%) was the most common in roots of tangerine
plants. Results pointed out that native mycorrhizal species in citrus
rhizosphere had varied colonizing potential involving in two
dissimilar rootstocks in the orchards.

Naher et
al.
(2013) elucidated the major role of mycorrhizae in sustaining crop
growing in Tropics, particularly the Glomus
mosseae
was well-known to inhabit numerous cereals, vegetables and fruits.
Symbioses and valuable effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were
observed in wheat, tomato, potato, brinjal, lady’s finger, pepper,
cucumber, bean, banana, rice and corn, in which arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi improved the nutrient uptake and water relations,
also perform as bio-protectants against toxic stresses and pathogens.
Therefore, the managing practices consisting of small tillage,
condensed use of fertilizers, particularly the phosphorous
fertilizers also enhanced their benefits.

Hazard
et al. (2012) analysed the Baas-Becking assumption; everything
is everywhere, but, the environment selects, to observe the role of
geographical remoteness and confined environment in shaping community
composition and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the
landscape scale communities in L. perenne and T. repens
roots were evaluated in 40 geographically isolated locations
representing unlike land uses and soil types in Ireland. Arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungal community composition was inclined by different
abiotic factors, but not geographical distance or land use. Each
species sustained complementary communities of mycorrhizal
fungi. This confirmed the strapping influence of the local
environment and soil types on determining mycorrhizal community
composition.

Gonzalez-Cortes
et
al. (2011)
assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities as well as land
use changes, the transfer of temperate forest to avocado cultivated
area and maize fields. The outcomes recommended the impacts of land
use changes are larger on the composition as compared to arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungal communities’ richness. The effect of some soil
on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities was as well observed but
the soil measurement revealed no significant relation with arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungal species composition. The most vital factor
shifting mycorrhizal communities appears to be present the
geographical area. Furthermore, the transform from forest toward
avocado plantations had slight influence on the species richness
contrasted to modification to maize field.

Isobe et
al.
(2011) assessed the mycorrhizae community composition into colonized
soybean roots cultured from Hokkaido and Kanagawa in Japan, also
correlated the community organization to ecological conditions
including preceding crops, soil type and soil chemical properties.
Average number of mycorrhizae colonizing roots of soybean collected
from Hokkaido and Kanagawa were with a considerable distinction.
Additionally, mycorrhizal fungal community from Gigaspora was not
recognized in the roots of soybean which concludes that the
ecological conditions were not the primary cause to differentiate
mycorrhizal community composition. Instead, phosphate absorption and
temperature were the influential factors of mycorrhizal community
structure.

Martínez-García
(2011) examined the correlation between some shrubs and their allied
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community (AMF) into a semi-arid plant
community in Spain. Relations among AMF and plant communities are
crucial components of ecological functioning. Though, they linger
poorly identified in dry ecosystem. Soil properties and plants
physiological position were considered, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal
communities were more diverse in fertile patches with low
phosphorus-nitrogen ratio. Consequently, diverse shrub species made
fertility islands that fluctuate in nutrient substances, hence,
sustained different AMF communities through rising AMF diversity on
the landscape intensity.

Mangen et
al. (2010)
depicted that the specificity between the Neotropical trees and their
fungal symbiosis directs to the plant–soil response that is key to
plants grouping. In particular, tropical plants adapted their
arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) communities in an approach which
either supports or restrains the next group of non-specific plant
seedlings. Seedlings of two shade tolerant plant species along with
two initiate plant species were grown-up in potted media comprising
of alike AMF communities collected in equivalent amount of inoculums
of six AMF species. Diverse findings were noticed which exposed the
relations between the tropical trees as well as allied AMF are
species specific. These relations may contour both the tropical tree
and their AMF communities in course of soil-plant response.

Mummey et
al. (2009)
adapted the pre-inoculation of seedling with viable, non-indigenous,
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants in land reclamation and
horticultural industries. Leucanthemum
vulgare
seedlings were exposed to five unlike mycorrhizal fungal inoculants
earlier to exposure to the whole-soil, mixed- mycorrhizal fungal
community inoculum. Subsequent to a growth period of 75 days further
for 4 weeks, mycorrhizal fungal community composition inside the
roots was examined which indicated that the mycorrhizal fungal
communities were strongly subjective through mycorrhizal fungal
inoculants pre-inoculants.

Yang et
al.
(2009) considered the variation in multiplication of septate
endophytes of the bases of field plants and dry soils. The
effectiveness as well as contrary qualities of the mycorrhizal
symbioses were assessed in the four replicas in term of clamminess
capability and inadequacy. The group composition of mycorrhizal fungi
changed with time and plant group. Soil properties other than soil
humidity did not vary altogether with testing time. Various Glomus
species were vast in states of moisture adequacy. Investigation
showed positive relations between the plant phosphorous and nitrogen
fixations.

Rillig
and Mummey
(2006) elucidated that mycorrhizae can persuade the main ecosystem
progression of soil aggregation and reviewed the role of mycorrhizae,
especially arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to soil composition on
different hierarchical stages including plant community, individual
root and soil mycelium. There are a set of systems in which
mycorrhizal fungi influence the soil aggregation at various scales.
Through expansion of these processes to the subject of mycorrhizal
fungal diversity, it is documented that diverse fungal species or
communities can support soil aggregation to varying degrees.
Mycorrhizal fungal contributions to soil structure are well-known.

Schalamuk et
al
(1990) examined the capability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by
using unlike sorts of propagules to inhabit new roots. As an inocula
source: soil, mycelium, root segments and wheat plants were collected
from the cultivated and non-tilled soils for trap culture. Trap
culture revealed the formation of Glomaromycota species from the
source inocula or propagules in soil. The proportion of Gigasporaceae
and Acaulosporaceae were comparable to that of Glomeraceae in
conventional tillage, while the fraction of Glomeraceae was up to 90%
in all trap cultures as it has recompenses in utilize of propagules
more than the others.

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