Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Language Being linguistically polite involves speaking to people appropriately

Language is a tool of a communication between human in society. The main form of human language is the sound produced by the human vocal organs. This communication is a tool that make interconnected with other people. Communication happens in almost all aspect of life. It is not only as a communication to each other, but also it uses in social aspects such as one’s relationship with religion, and politics, economics and culture. In the terms of entertainment, such as movies, soundtracks, and scripts use language either. However the language used within them are certainly to convey the purpose of any linguistics intention. It means that the usage of language is unconsciously contained with linguistics element.Politeness in pragmatics is something rather different from an everyday understanding of it and focusing almost uniquely on polite language in the study of verbal language (Watt, 2003: 10). Many benefit of being polite in some communication. The first is made us being involves taking into other people the feeling. The second is being polite also means employing awareness of others feeling. Being linguistically polite involves speaking to people appropriately in the right place and at the right time. People must be aware of the context of speaking because politeness in a certain area is different from others. The phenomenon of politeness features happens in the society, in real conversations. However, to analyze them, it is not a must to observe a real society since this is depicted in many media such as movies. Movie is one among many media which are popular in the society and can be used to investigate politeness. One of the movies that show how politeness is implemented in the society is Uptown Girls.Tangled the movie is the one of best animation created by Walt Disney Pictures. Tangle as the main character is interesting to analyze. Tangled is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated musical comedy adventure film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios. This story is based on the German fairy tale “Rapunzel” in the collection of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm. The film tells the story of a lost, young princess with long magical hair who learns to leave her secluded tower. Against her mother’s wishes, she accepts the help of a stranger to take her out into the world which she has never seen. She followed him to see the world which she has never seen before.In this research, the researcher only focuses on the linguistic aspects of the movie. The linguistic aspects of the movies include many points to consider. Politeness is only one of them. In analyzing and understanding the meaning of what the characters uttered in the conversations. In this research, the writer will focus on politeness strategy by Brown and Levinson in Tangled the movie. This research will be analyzed each scene to know what strategy that use in the movie and how it works and why characters in the movie use those strategies. As a portrait of real life event, Tangled the movie also carries some real life phenomena. Based on the fact that Tangled has a female character as its focus of the story, the researcher expects that this movie employs of face wants in politeness strategies. The researcher decides to use the movie as the subject of the research. The researcher aims to describe the functions and to describe the employment of face wants in politeness strategies by main female character to support the goal of Tangled the movie.Considering the wide range of the approaches of politeness, the researcher limits the problems observed. The researcher only focuses on analyzing conversation among the main characters who employed face wants in politeness strategies and the realization of the strategy proposed by Brown and Levinson.In short, the research problems can be formulated as the two points below:1. What are the types of face wants in politeness strategies used by the main characters in Tangled the movie?2. How are face wants in politeness strategies realized in the utterances used by the main characters in Tangled the movie?In relation to the formulation of the problems, the objectives of the research are as follows:1. to identify the types of politeness strategies used by the main characters in Tangled the movie, and2. to describe the way politeness strategies are realized in the utterances used by the main characters in Tangled the movie.Based on the result of the research, it is expected that this research provides both theoretical and practical contributions.1. Theoretical significanceTheoretically, the research findings confer additional information to linguistic field dealing with pragmatics research under the issue of politeness strategies.2. Practically significancePractically, it is expected that this research is useful for the academic society in enriching the knowledge of face wants in politeness strategies. In addition, this research is hopefully able to give an important contribution for other researchers who are interested in doing similar research.After the explanation above, the next explanation is divided into two parts: theoretical background and conceptual framework. The first part consists of some theories as guidance in conducting this research and description the object of this research. The second part deals with conceptual framework. It shows the concepts used in this research. It is also formulated into an analytical construct.Theoretical Review 1. PragmaticsMany linguists propose various definitions of pragmatics. Yule (1998: 3) defines pragmatics as the study that concerns with the meaning communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener (reader). This type of study necessarily involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context in which the context influences what they say is. It requires a consideration of how speakers organize what they want to say in with who they are talking to, where, when, and under what circumstances.Grundy (2000:3) said that pragmatics is the study that discusses how to produce utterances and comprehend what people say in daily conversation although maybe they use unfamiliar language.According to Griffith (2006: 1), pragmatics is about the use of utterances in context, about how people manage to convey more than what is literally encoded by the semantics of sentences. Pragmatics builds on what is semantically encoded in the language. That is the point which makes them different. Further he explains that semantics is the study of the “toolkit” for meaning, while pragmatics is concerned with the use of these tools in meaningful communication. Pragmatics is about the interaction of semantic knowledge with our knowledge of the world, taking into account contexts of use.In conclusion, pragmatics is a study that concern with language and its users in a certain context. The users refer to both speaker and hearer. The meaning of the utterances delivered by the speaker is confined to the meaning from the speaker, its also the interpretation from the hearer. The contexts where the conversation takes place also conveys the interpretation of the meaning. Different context will lead different interpretation. Therefore, the range of pragmatics is wide. It covers many other principles such as deixis, speech acts, presupposition, cooperative principles,  implicature, and politeness.2. Politenessa. Definition Politeness is a very important principle. This is very important for a language use and for a communication. It can be defined as a means to show awareness of another person’s face (Yule, 1996:60). In pragmatics, politeness is concerned with “…ways in which the relational function in linguistic action is expressed” (Kasper in Barron, 2003:15). Politeness concerned with how language is employed to catch the aim of communication. This also aims of maintaining relationships between each other. Politeness also includes appropriate linguistic choice that deals with a certain social and situational context. The discussion of politeness cannot be separated from the discussion of face.Brown And Levinson’s Theory of Politeness1) FaceFace means a public self image. It refers to the emotional and social sense of self that every person has and expects to be recognized by everyone (Yule, 1996:60). Brown and Levinson (in Watts, 2003:86) state that there are two kinds of face, negative and positive face. Negative face refers to the individual’s desire for freedom of action and freedom from imposition. Positive face refers to the individual’s desire that his wants be appreciated and approved of in social interaction. For example, when someone asks to get a pen from someone else, he can use two ways. Firstly, if he wants to apply negative face, he can say ‘could you lend me a pen?’. In this case, the speaker prefers to give a freedom action to the hearer by using the word could you. Secondly, if he applies positive face, he can say ‘How about letting me use your pen?’. In this case, the speaker wants be approved by using the word letting to the hearer. In one case, when the speaker says something to lessen the possible threat from another’s face, it is called a face saving act. There are two types of face saving act, negative and positive face saving acts. A face saving act that emphasizes a person’s negative face will show concern about imposition, for example, ‘I’m sorry to bother you, could you lend me a pen?’. A face saving act that emphasizes a person’s positive face will show solidarity and draw attention to a common goal (Yule, 1996:61-62), for example, ‘You and I have the same problem, so we can solve it together.’ a) Negative face: the right to get freedom of action and freedom from imposition.b) Positive face: the need to be appreciated by others, and to maintain a positive self-image. For example, when someone asks to get a pen from someone else, if he/she applies negative face, he/she says “Could you lend me a pen?” In the other hands, if he/she wants to show his/her positive face, he/she can say “How about letting me to use your pen?”In everyday conversation, it is often found a person expects that their public self-image will be respected or face wants. Yule (1998: 61) explains that if the speaker says something to lessen the possible threat from another’s face, it is called a face saving act. A face saving act which is oriented to the person’s negative face– that will tend to show deference, emphasize the importance of the other’s time or concerns, and even include an apology for the imposition or interruption– is called negative politeness. Whereas, a face saving act which is concerned with the person’s positive face– that will tend to show solidarity, emphasize that both speakers want the same thing, and they have a common goal– is called positive politeness (Yule, 1998:62).2) Face-Threatening Act (FTA)The utterances or actions to lessen the threat of another’s face are called face saving act, while the threat that is given to another individual’s self-image is called Face-Threatening Act or FTA (Yule, 1998: 61). This act avoids the freedom of actions (negative face) and states someone’s wish to be wanted by others (positive face). In an attempt to avoid FTA’s, the interlocutors use specific strategies to minimize the threat according to a rational assessment of the face risk to the participants. Negative face threatening act could be seen when a person is given order, request, suggestion, advice, reminder, threat, warning, offer, promise, and anger to the interlocutor. For example when the speaker says “You had better take a taxi”, it means that the speaker threatens the listener’s negative face because the speaker gives a suggestion to the listener. Next, the acts that appear as disapproving of their wants called as positive FTA. Positive face threatening act could be seen when a person shows disapproval, criticism, contempt, complaint, accusation, insult, disagreement, violence, taboo topics, and interruption to the interlocutor. For example when the speaker says “I don’t think you’re right”, it means that the speaker threatens the positive face of the listener’s because the speaker expresses disagreement.After the theoretical background above, the next explanation is data collection. Data are all information and material in the universe that must be collected and classified by the researcher. According to Bodgan and Bliken (1982:73), data is the rough materials that are collected by the researchers from the subject they identified. Data in qualitative research is different from the data in quantitative research. According to Denscombe (2007:286), data in qualitative research is taken from words or images that are used in the subject that being analyzed. 3) Politeness strategiesAccording to Brown and Levinson (in Watts, 2003:85), in communication, the  speaker should have a way to assess the dangers of threatening other participants’  face and to choose the appropriate strategies in order to minimize any face threats that might be involved in carrying out the goal-directed activity called as politeness  strategy. There are four kinds of politeness strategies proposed by Brown and Levinson:  Bald On Record, Positive Politeness, Negative Politeness, and Off Record. a. Bald On RecordThe prime reason for its usage is  that whenever a speaker wants to do the FTA with maximum efficiency more than he wants to satisfy the hearer’s face, even to any degree, he will choose bald on record strategy (Brown and Levinson, 1978: 95).b. Positive PolitenessThe positive politeness strategy is usually seen in groups of friends, or where people in the given social situation know each other fairly well (Watts, 2003:87). c. Negative PolitenessNegative politeness strategies are oriented towards the hearer’s negative face and  emphasize  avoidance  of  imposition  on  the  hearer  (Watts,  2003:88).d. Off Record The FTA is performed ‘Off Record’, typically through the deployment of an indirect illocutionary act which has more than one interpretation and, thus, allows for  plausible deniability on the part f the utterer if the intended recipient takes offence at the face threat inherent in the utterance (Bousfield,  2008:58).Tangled the MovieTangled the movie is the one of best animation created by Walt Disney Pictures. Tangle as the main character is interesting to analyze. Tangled is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated musical comedy adventure film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios. This story is based on the German fairy tale “Rapunzel” in the collection of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm. The film tells the story of a lost, young princess with long magical hair who learns to leave her secluded tower. Against her mother’s wishes, she accepts the help of a stranger to take her out into the world which she has never seen. She followed him to see the world which she has never seen before.Research MethodThe subject of this research was Tangled movie from Walt Disney Picture. The data were in the form of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences found in the utterances of Rapunzel, as the main character, which are taken from the movie transcript. The primary instrument of this research is the researcher herself with data sheet as the supporting instrument. Several procedures such as collecting, classifying, analyzing and interpreting the data are employed to achieve the final result.The data were collected by analyzing the transcription of Tangled movie. According to Hancock (2002:9), data collection techniques in qualitative research derive from smaller subject of the analysis and will give deeper understanding than quantitative research does. He adds that the main methods in collecting data in qualitative research are individual interviews, focus groups, and observation.In this research, the data were collected and classified by observing the spoken language and written language as the data. The spoken language was taken from the audio and visual image in the movie, while the written language was from the subtitle of the movie. Politeness is one of the central concepts in pragmatics. Politeness strategy includes someone’s basic knowledge about norms and beliefs he/she learns from his/her culture. Different cultures have different ways of expressing consideration for other. Thus, every culture has its own ways or strategies of showing politeness to others. In this research, the researcher also applies her own perspective and basic knowledge to judge the politeness strategies used by the main characters when having conversation with other character and the way those strategies are realized in Tangled the movie.

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