Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

INTRODUCTION the contemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher- his

INTRODUCTION

We
recognise that there are real challenges facing teacher education in India. Teacher
education has been defined as all formal and informal activities and
experiences that help to qualify a person to assume the responsibilities as a
member of the educational profession or to discharge his responsibilities for
effectively. Teacher education includes every aspect of the student-teacher’s
personality. We may define teacher education as such institutionalized
educational procedures that are aimed at the purposeful organized preparation
or further education of teachers who are engaged directly or indirectly in
educational activities as their life work. Teacher education aims at helping
the teacher in understanding the nature of the child, his abilities, aptitudes,
developmental level, emotion, instincts, sentiments, ambitions and assists them
in making better adjustments. The students are the future of the country, so
only a trained and skilful teacher makes them best and help them to be the
future of the country. Only a skillful and trained teacher has the capacity to
provide a proper guidance and teaching. So, the teacher education is the only
thing which helps the teacher to be skilful and trained. The secondary
Education Commission (1952-53), in order to improve the quality and standard of
education- a worthy medium of the balanced development of the students’
personality, have rightly observed, we are however, convinced that the most
important factor in the contemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher-
his personal qualities, his educational qualification, his professional training
and the place that he occupies in the school as well as in the community. The
reputation of a school and its influence on the life of community invariably
depend on the kind of teachers working in it. Priority of consideration must,
therefore, be given to the various problems connected with the improvements of
their status.  Nothing is more important
than securing a sufficient supply of high quality recruits to the teaching
profession, providing them with the best possible professional preparation and creating
satisfactory conditions of work in which they can be fully effective. In view
of the rapid expansion of educational facilities expected during the plan
periods and especially in view of the urgent need to raise standards to highest
level and to keep them continually improving these problems have now acquired
unprecedented importance and urgency.

The
ministry of Education document, “Challenge of Education – A policy perspective”
(1985) has mentioned, “Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the
field of education. Whatever policies may be laid down in the ultimate analysis
these have to interpreted and implemented by teachers as much through their
personal example as through teaching learning process.”

The
National Education Policy (1986) has similarly pointed out, “The Status of the
teacher reflects the socio-cultural ethos of a society; it is said that no
people can rise above the level of its teachers. The Government and the
community should endeavour to create conditions which will help motivate and
inspire teachers on constructive and creative lines. Teachers should have the
freedom to innovate to devise appropriate methods of communication and
activities relevant to the needs and capabilities of the concerns of the
community.”

The education that the
teachers acquire is divided into types- one is pre-service teacher education
and, another is inservice teacher education.

Pre-service
Teacher Education:-

The professional
training undertaken by teachers before their joining in the services as teacher
is known as pre-service teacher education. People desiring to adopt teaching as
their profession, are called upon to undergo and complete such pre-service
training as they acquire necessary knowledge and skills that are necessary for
improving their competence as teachers. The course studies and curriculum are
well developed and transacted during sessions scheduled for the purpose. On
completion of the course of studies, the student or pupil teacher are required
to appear at the final examination and those who are found successful on the
basis of their performance examinations are given certificates or degree or
diploma and they become eligible for entering into the teaching jobns according
to their general and professional qualification. The Education commission,
1964-66 laod stress on the professional training of teachers and made very
useful suggestions for removing the isolation of teacher training and improving
the standard of training programmes. These are as follows-

(i)           Teacher education should be brought
into the main stream of academic life of the universities on the one hand and
of school life and educational development on the other.

(ii)          The quality of teacher education
should be improved by introducing content-cum-methodology courses.

(iii)         The staff of secondary teacher training
college should have a double master’s degree in academic subject and in teacher
education and the staff of primary teachers training school should have a
master’s degree either in education or in an academic subject as well as B.Ed.

(iv)         All
tuition fees in training institutions should be abolished and liberal provision
be made for stipends.

(v)          Every
training institution should have an experimental or a demonstration school
attached to it.

(vi)         Adequate hostel facilities for trainers
and residential accommodation for teacher’s educators be provided.

In-service Teacher
Education:

In-service
Teacher Education may be defined as continuing education of teachers already
working in schools for their professional competence. In-service education is
the education a teacher receives after she has entered the teaching profession.
A prospective teacher is always prepared to learn more. The professional growth
of a teacher does not cease when she leaves the training institution. In fact
he begins to learn different kinds of experiences. In the words of Tagore
rightly means by the given statement “A lamp can never light another lamp
unless it continues to burn its own flames.” that, a teacher can never truly
teach, unless he is still learning himself. The term is self-explanatory. It
refers to the education, a teacher receives after he has entered the teaching
profession. The teacher may have received his professional education in
teaching institute or in a college of education but he continues his education
and should possess three types of competencies as under-

·                    
Competency in academic
field.

·                    
Competency inteaching
methodology.

·                    
Competency in
class-room interaction analysis and application.

Objectives
of In-service Education:

The teacher needs orientation in various
fields of education. This is necessary to enable him fresh in the light of
progress and new developments in the field of education. The teacher education has
to achieve the following objectives:-

·        
To equip the teachers
with latest content or subject matter in their specialized fields.

·        
To make the teachers
habitual of self-study with aim of keeping themselves updated with the latest
knowledge and technologies in their fields.

·        
To make teachers
explore various ways of making and using low-cost teaching aids.

·        
To develop suitable and
varied programmes to meet individual, school and state needs with regard to
education.

·        
To make teacher aware
and about the need of in-service education.

·        
To generate in teachers
a feeling to share their thoughts and also the importance of in-service
education within themselves.

In-Service Teacher
Education Institutuions:

1 State Institutes of
Education- It provides train to supervisors of
elementary school, organize conferences and seminar for quality improvement of
teacher.

2 District Institutes
of Education and Training (DIET)- To organise pre-service
and in-service courses for elementary teachers and for personnel working in a
non-formal and adult education.

3 STEI’s, IASEs and
CTEs- for qualitative improvement among teachers Secondary
Teacher Education Institutions (STEI),Institutes of advance study in
education(IASE),Colleges of teacher education(CTE) organizes in-service teacher
training programmes time to time.

4 National Council of Educational
Research and Training (NCERT)- At national level it
undertakes research and training in education at the school stage. It
coordinates the entire work of in-service teacher education and also formulates
syllabi for the training of teachers at different levels.

5 National Institute of
Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA)-
It organizes in-service education for educational administration, planners, and
supervisors.

6 National Council of Teacher Education
(NCTE)- to advise the government of India on teacher
education including pre-service and in-service training, evaluation and review
of syllabus.

Programmes of In-service Teacher
Education :-

Generally
the programmes of in-service education in our country are organized by the Colleges
of Teacher Education, SCERT, DIET and NCERT. Some of the programmes of
in-service education which can be initiated are as under :-

1.              
Seminar-
Seminars are organized for collective thinking on various problems of education
by the teacher. It is an effective instrument of in-service education.

2.              
Workshop-
The approach in a workshop is more
practical and the participants work actively and make a significant
contribution.

3.              
Refresher
Course- This course facilitates the professional
and academic growth of a teacher. It
acquaints them about the latest developments in their subject as well as in
theory and practice of teaching.

4.              
Study
groups- The member of study group may meet
weekly to discuss problem concerning their subject areas and work out new
teaching techniques. .

5.              
School
programmes- Different school programmes are
conducted to serve the purpose of in-service education such as faculty meeting,
exhibitions, demonstration lessons etc.

6.              
Study
of professional writings- Teachers should be
encouraged to study various publication of NCERT, Extension services, to
acquaint them with the latest materials and findings.

7.              
Conference
– It is a kind of meeting of teachers, supervisors
and administrator for discussing certain issues and problems like- revision of
school curriculum, selection of text books, adaptation of new methods of
teaching and evaluation, guidance of gifted children etc.

Drawbacks in the present system of
Teacher Education

The
Education Commission (1964-66) has identified the following drawbacks in the
present system of Teacher Education.

1.              
The training
institutions have remained isolated from the main stream of academic life of
the university, as well as from the daily problems of the school.

2.              
The quality of training
institutions is poor.

3.              
Teacher Educators, in
many cases, are not very competent.

4.              
Vitality and realism
are lacking in the curriculum only traditional courses are offered.

5.              
Teaching practice is
carried on as a matter of routine.

6.              
Bright students are not
attracted to the training institutions.

7.              
Teaching is the last
resort of the unemployed.

Improvement in Pre-Service & In-Service
Teacher Education Programme

We
can bring the improvement in Pre-Service & in-Service Teacher Education
Programme by adopting following means

1      Adequate staff for training colleges.

2       Priorities and motivating teacher for
in-service education.

3      School levels INSET programmes.

4      appropriate methodology in teaching.

5    Formation of subject teachers association.