are people who band together to promote their cause in an attempt to sway
policymakers to implement laws that advance their ideologies. There are two
types of interest groups. The first type is economic interest group. They aim
to retrieve material incentives for their members. The second type is
non-economic interest group. They aim to retrieve purposive incentives for
their members. Material incentives
include economic benefits (such as tax breaks, travel discounts, etc.) or
economic opportunities (such as less restrictions on trade). Purposive
incentives include marriage rights, voting rights, citizenship rights, etc.
are many variations in how state/local level interest groups operate. For
instance one obvious variation is the number of people the interest group would
influence. Also, the area a special interest group covers is a determinant of
the amount of funds that a special interest group can raise. Thus, larger
special interest groups have more capital to spend giving them an advantage
over special interest groups that do not have such luxury.
federal government (oddly enough) typically does not have enormous influence in
our everyday lives. Thus, state and local special interest groups tend to
influence our lives more than those at the national level. Also, at the local
level it is much easier to aid a campaign, provide ratings of local officials,
it is much easier to build alliances, etc. For example, it is much easier for
someone to speak with a local mayor than it is to speak with the President of
the United States. It is much easier to canvas a city than it is to canvas an
entire county, state, or an entire country. This is why I believe local
interest groups are more effective.
are many different factors that account for different rates of voter turnout.
The most obvious factor is the type of election. History has proven that larger
presidential elections will have higher turnout that if its just a local
government election. This is due to voter burnout due to the amount of
elections (including primaries) that our system of government requires us to
general, five factors influence whether or not a voter decides to cast a
ballot. The first factor is age. As a person ages, they become eligible for
government assistance such as Medicare and Social Security checks. History has
proven that the voters enjoy these benefits. They are inclined to keep these
benefits. The second factor is education. The more education one has, the more
likely they are to vote. The third factor is income level. Those with higher
incomes are inclined to keep their money thus they vote against revenue raising
measures. The fourth factor is minority status. History has proven that
minorities have been disenfranchised in everyway shape or form. Thus, if the
law allows them to vote in representatives that will mitigate their
disadvantages, they will be inclined to do so. The final factor is ideology.
For example, if same-sex marriage is on the ballot and someone is in favor of
it then they will be inclined to vote in favor of such measure.
are major differences in California’s turnout rate when compared to the nation
as a whole. For one, the ethnic vote in California is much higher than the
national average. In California, the number of highly educated persons is
higher than the national average (per state).
In California, the income level tends to be slightly higher than the
national average (per state). Thus, they are more inclined to vote. And
finally, due to California’s vast size (and it’s culture and ethnic groups) the
ideologies vary much differently than states in the middle of the country.