Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Fire fuels initially burn very sultry, then appear to

Fire is composed of light and heated gases from combustion, and generally to make something ignite or combust, it requires an extraordinary amount of heat. Most anyone can control the temperature of fire by culling a fuel that burns with a low temperature flame. If one pours the fuel onto a substance that will not burn, one can make a fireball that is cool enough to hold in anyone’s hand or even juggle. In this particular science fair experiment, the plan is to demonstrate just that. Some types of fuels initially burn very sultry, then appear to go out — but they perpetuate burning at a much lower temperature, with no visible flames (cool flames). Understanding cool flame combustion avails scientists develop incipient engines and fuels that are more efficient and less deleterious to the environment. The Cool Flames Investigation provides incipient insight into this phenomenon, as well as up-to-date data on fire safety in space.
Chemical reactions occur when   one or more substances, the reactants, are converted to one or more different substances, the products. Substances are either chemical elements or compounds. A chemical reaction rearranges the constituent atoms of the reactants to engender different substances as products. Chemical reactions are an integral part of technology, of culture, and indeed of life itself. Burning fuels, smelting iron, making glass and pottery, brewing beer, and making wine and cheese are among many examples of activities incorporating chemical reactions that have been kenned and developed for thousands of years. Chemical reactions abound in the geology of Earth, in the atmosphere and oceans, and in a prodigious array of perplexed processes that occur in all living systems.
For a brief history lesson, there used to be a common mix of carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride burned with a fairly cool flame. In the past, magicians used this mix. They poured it on their skin and lit the commix. The flames did not burn them, even though they still felt quite hot. But, with some hand movement and gestures, the heat is bearable. Nowadys, this mix is not used anymore. Both CS2 and CC14 are toxic and were common in that mix. It had a nasty long term effect, and it is a potent carcinogen. Utilizing CS2 only was too hazardous. It burns with a much sultrier flame and cannot be used without intense burns. Another nice redox reaction, which gave a kind of ‘flame’, is to lead vapor of phosphorous through air. 
On the contrary to this “magician’s mix,” one specific purpose of this experiment is to use ingredients such as a 100% cotton thread, one needle, naphtha lighter fluid, some types of alcohol, and matches and/or a lighter. 
So the reader may be wondering ‘What makes this “cool fire” actually cool enough to hold, or even possible?’ The certain kind of alcohol in Germ-x or any other hand sanitizer in general is flammable, containing ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol, which are both flammable easily, but contract a warm but considerably “cooled flame” from say a typical backyard bonfire.
It is best to utilize 100% cotton fabric and thread. If the fiber is synthetic (like nylon or polyester) it might burn through or even melt, leaving the experiment with unpleasant consequences. The secret to this trick is the fuel. It requires naphtha, kerosene,  or a select few alcohols. It is relatively hard to blow out the flame once it is lit, but a pretty hard blow or something to suffocate (ex. a saucepan) the flame can do the trick. 
Once they have been lit on fire and burned for a little while the balls are reusuable. Once they run out of fuel put them out, or else the cotton will start to burn, thus burning the carrier of the fireball. Ideally, the experimenter needs to extinguish the flame before all the fuel is consumed by the flame. Afterwards, simply soak the cotton swabs in more lighter fluid to relight and reuse it. 
In conclusion, this project may sound dumb or silly, but the idea behind it is pretty cool. Besides the “magician’s mix,” using a naphtha fuel or ethyl and isopropyl alcohol for this specific reason could bode well for science research in the future. This unique burning demeanor highlights the need to better understand both low and intermediate temperatures based on fuel chemistry and its effect on droplet combustion, having implicative insinuations for spray combustion, and fire safety. 


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