After the huge problem created by the India Pakistan
division Punjab has faced a population growth ever since. With increasing time
the growth has been more on the urban part. The gradual decline in the land
holdings has somehow reduced the rural population and forced these people to
migrate to the other major cities like Ludhiana, Patiala, Chandigarh, Amritsar
etc. But even in this case the population of the urban agglomeration and towns
have increased. The overall population of these districts may not give the data
of increasing population growth.
The population trend of
2001 and 2011 shows there were many major districts like Jalandhar, Moga,
Patiala, Amritsar which shows rise in population from 2001 to 2011. Ludhiana
Municipal Corporation and Amritsar Urban Agglomeration are 2 million plus
cities and comprises 26.7% of total urban population of Punjab. Mohalis
proximity to Chandigarh has
caused the population to
grow. This is growing like Chandigarh.
The major reasons of the
increase in population from 2001 to 2011 can be-
In 2001 the population was still dominated
by the agricultural activities, the economic growth was not that much. But with
time the development in other economic sectors have forced other people to
reside in these areas which has resulted in rise in population.
2005 onwards many new schemes and
development policies are adopted and it is mostly around the main cities. As
the above mentioned districts have given birth to major cities, this has
resulted in population rise.
The introduction of proper transport network
has made these areas more accessible than the other places.
More opportunities and better standard of
living caused these areas to grow more.
There are many other
districts like Tarn Taran, Faridkot, Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar the population
has decreased, the probable reasons can be-
After 2000 there has been a large scale
migration from other places towards the main cities for better opportunities.
These bordered districts are far away from
the major cities. That is why the development in this part is very limited.
The decrease in the importance of
agriculture in these areas have resulted many people to shift.
lack in infrastructure is another reason for the fall of population in these
areas. In Punjab the infrastructural facilities are not well distributed. That
poses a problem for the people living there.
Many young people of
Punjab migrate to foreign for education purpose and other
If we consider the growth
rate of Punjab then except few districts mostly the population of all the
districts from 2001 to 2011 has increased. The reasons are given below-
The economic development of India couples
with increasing rate of urbanization. Cities are engines of economic growth
because there is a positive correlation between urbanization and growth. Urban
population in India has increased from 27.81 per cent in 2001 to 31.16 per cent
in 2011. On the other hand, rural population decreased from 72.19 per cent in
2001 to 68.84 per cent in 2011. As per 2011 census, top five most urbanized
states are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab (39.5 per cent), and Karnataka.
Recently, many public policies have been
introduced for higher and sustainable economic growth, which in turn has
increased the population. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
(JNNURM), National Urban Sanitation Policy, Urban Transport Policy, Service
Level Benchmarking, setting up of a high powered expert committee on urban
infrastructure, public private partnership, canters of excellence in urban
development, 100 Smart Cities, Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban
Transformation (AMRUT), Swatch Bharat Abhiyan and Digital India are some of the
actions launched by the government of India.
Among these policies, JNNURM was one of the very important mission is
launched in 2005. The main objective or aim of the JNNURM is to improve and
speed up planned development of identical cities and to increase the efficiency
of infrastructure and service delivery mechanism, community sharing and
accountability of urban local bodies’ parasternal agencies towards citizens.
Most recently, 100 smart cities programme also has been put forth. The main aim
of 100 smart cities project is to achieve inclusive growth. Under this scheme
three cities Ludhiana, Jalandhar, and
Amritsar were included from Punjab.
Recently, many public policies have been
introduced to promote urbanization in India for higher and sustainable economic
growth. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), National
Urban Sanitation Policy, Urban Transport Policy, Service Level Benchmarking,
setting up of a high powered expert committee on urban infrastructure, public private
partnership, canters of excellence in urban development, 100 Smart Cities, Atal
Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), Swatch Bharat
Abhiyan and Digital India are some of the actions launched by the government of
India. Among these policies, JNNURM was
one of the very important mission is launched in 2005. The main objective or
aim of the JNNURM is to improve and speed up planned development of identical
cities and to increase the efficiency of infrastructure and service delivery
mechanism, community sharing and accountability of urban local bodies’
parasternal agencies towards citizens. Most recently, 100 smart cities
programme also has been put forth. The main aim of 100 smart cities project is
to achieve inclusive growth. Under this scheme three cities Ludhiana, Jalandhar, and Amritsar were
included from Punjab.
In India, Punjab has been first ranked in
terms of infrastructure facilities. Punjab’s air transport network, road,
construction of bridges, rail, connectivity and infrastructure facilities are
good. With increasing connectivity the population has also increased, because
now more people can come here.
A trend towards ribbon development along
the major transport corridor such as the Grand Trunk Road (GTR) that acts as
the economic spine of the state. Three
corporation towns of Punjab are situated on GTR. Urbanization in the state is
developing as a corridor, creating a linear pattern running from southeast to
northwest with large concentrations of population in class I and class II
Cities are engines of economic growth which
in turn rises up the population growth, as the cities contribute more than 60
per cent of the State Domestic Product (SDP) in Punjab. With the advent of economic reforms,
liberalization and globalization, cities are emerging as important reservoirs
of employment and providers of health services, higher education and centres of
art and culture.
There are some negative growth rate in
some districts of Punjab, like, Amritsar is followed by negative growth rate,
as there many of schemes regarding heritage sites, within the confined
boundary. So, there are no chance of implementation of other programmes and
schemes in Amritsar. So, this district is been followed by negative growth
rate, where there are tendency of moving population towards other districts. Another
reason is that, Amritsar is the hub of Sikhism religion. So, after partition,
there were mass movement of population in Amritsar.
Though there are many
reasons behind the population growth of many districts of Punjab, but due to
this growth many negative impact has caused.
The positive role of population growth is
overshadowed by the deteriorating urban infrastructure and civic services, and
substandard housing. The situation calls for innovative measures for urban
development, housing, efficient delivery of services and bridging gaps between
demand and supply, starting from small and medium towns to class I and class II
Due to increase in population of some
districts space crunch has been caused, which has resulted into slum
development. Their contribution of productivity is unable to find a proper
living space, they become a burden on the urban infrastructure, as they put up
temporary and illegal structures on private and public lands commonly known as
slums. The slum and shanty settlements
in and on the periphery of towns become a major burden for the urban local bodies
(ULBs), as such services as drinking water supply, sewerage and sanitation are
provided to them with no or little cost-recovery. The migrant workforce should
be provided proper living space and environment for a harmonious growth of
population, settlements and resources in urban areas.
City governments are financially weak
because of a host of reasons and are unable to provide adequate services for
the growing needs of the citizens. The cities in Punjab, with poor
infrastructure, may become unliveable and unproductive. Prioritization of development
of small and medium towns/ viable regional growth centres, convergence of
programmes to improve physical, social and economic infrastructure are
Punjab has a high
potential for growth, not just the population growth but the overall well
distributed growth. Due to the increasing importance of few cities all other
parts of the state is not getting the importance they deserve. It requires
proper urban strategies. Moreover Punjab is a state that was based on
agriculture from the very beginning. Instead of making each and every place
dependent on the secondary and tertiary activities, it is more important to
strengthen the activities which are already there. More investment should be
there to develop this sector.