Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Acute of redness, swelling and ulceration over a period

Acute toxicity refers to the adverse effect on the first exposure
of a single dose of a substance in a short period of time. Separate test is
needed to detect how the substance swallowed, inhaled, injected or come into
contact with the skin and eye affects organs. Skin irritancy test is conducted
on the shaved area of the back of rabbits by observing the development of redness,
swelling and ulceration over a period of three days. In eye-irritancy test, the
test substance is administered directly into the eye of a rabbit. In skin
sensitisation test, the skin of guinea pigs is applied doses of test substances
to observe an immune reaction, indicating sensitisation to the chemical. Guinea
pigs are later being replaced by mice and conducted in a test called the local
lymph node assay (Badyal & Desai,
2014). The
test material is applied to the ears of the mice and measures the level of
induced DNA synthesis in the lymph nodes at the early stages of sensitisation
before the mice are killed. This test causes less pain to the animals involved,
uses fewer animals and able to obtain more useful information. The main purpose
of the skin and eye test is to allow classification and labelling of corrosive
and irritant chemicals. The current systems of clarification allows chemicals
to be classified by their physico-chemical properties such as pH value (Boyd et al., 2005).

The number of animals involved in the different kinds of toxicity
test varies. A full complement of toxicity tests for a pharmaceutical compound
that appears on the market involves between 1500-3000 animals. Rodents are most
commonly used in toxicity test. A series of tests ranging from a single high
dose to long term exposure to a certain drug, in order to observe the results
of a product used in different situations. Humans are subjected to many different
kinds of exposure such as mouth, skin, eyes or airways, therefore the results are
used to assign chemicals to bands of acute toxic effects. When a chemical is
introduced into a body, it interacts in many places throughout and effect upon
a process can cause unexpected outcome. Therefore animal testing is significant
because such complex cannot be duplicated in cell cultures or in non-living systems.
Toxicity can be influenced by various aspects such as the speed of substance
entering the system leading to the different response of organs and body
tissues. In animals, not only we can analyse the chemical reaction as well as
the relationship between the dose given to the animal and to the different
organs and tissues in the body. (Anon, 2007). Regulatory requirements
request the reduction in the use of animals in studies and reduce the pain and
distress. It is difficult to assess the suffering sustained by animals used
toxicity testing. Some form of harm done to animals is inevitable to achieve
the scientific objectives of work (Perry, 2007).

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There are three types of licence that manage all animal
research in the UK: personal licences, project licences and certificates of designation.
To obtain a personal licence, a scientist must successfully complete a training
course covering the ethical and legislation aspects of animal use, care and
welfare, husbandry and animal biology. A licence holder are obliged to ensure
minimal pain and suffering given to the animal. A project licence holder is
permitted to conduct a project about the prevention or treatment of a certain
disease or their effects in humans, animals, or plants. A certificate of
designation holder must ensure that its establishment complies with the
conditions of the certificate. The licence holder is also required to nominate
at least a person to be in charge of the health and welfare of all animals (Boyd et al., 2005).

In the UK, in order for new medicines to be licensed, they
must meet the requirements of the Medicines Act 1968. The Act states that a
medicine requires the testing of animals to prove that it is safe, effective
and of high quality. All new chemicals placed on the EU market for the first
time must be declared to the competent authorities of the Member States. EU
legislation, Directive EC 2001/83 requires animal testing before being tested
on humans. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Consumer Protection Act
1987 and the Food Safety Act 1990 requires the testing of chemicals. Certain
OCED testing guidelines also require the use of animal testing (Boyd et al., 2005).

Although society views animal testing as an ethical problem,
polls show that they are ready to accept the use of animals in medical research,
84% in 1999, 90% in 2002 and 89% in 2005. In 2006, 96% of GPs agreed that the
advancement of medicine is due to the contribution of animal testing and about
88% of GPs agreed that safety testing should be done on animals before
undergoing human trials (Festing & Wilkinson, 2007).

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