Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Abstract— for national and local government to ensure convincing

 

    

Abstract— The issue of overflowing garbage bins and manholes has become habitual in many geographical areas in our country. Moreover the illegal dumping of hazardous waste is one of the most apropos incident related to illegal waste proceedings. This waste management process is quite vulnerable, especially when it comes to assuring the right destination of the hazardous waste. The aim of this paper is to describe a sassy way to overseer fills level of debris bins as well as manholes using sensors and systemizing the garbage weight by using Load cell. Once the bins gets engaged the intimation note will be send to the managing authority using GSM module.

Index Terms— Microcontroller, GSM 300 Module, Wi-Fi Module, Load cell, IR sensor, Gas sensor.

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                                 I.   INTRODUCTION

                Due to this uncontrollable of hazardous wastes, there is a rapid increase in volume and types of solid and haphazard waste as a termination of unfaltering economic growth, urbanization and industrialization is becoming a burgeoning problem for national and local government to ensure convincing and feasible management of waste. The term hazardous waste explicate waste which is impregnable or problematic to keep, treat or makeover, and it may be composed of stuff which are toxic, noxious, ruthless, nuisance, erosive or else it may endanger the human verdure and baneful to the environment. Waste management is a lively issue, particularly in relation to the atmosphere. The costs associated with waste disposal can be significant particularly in sluggishly settled countries. Market of waste management comprises of four segments municipal waste, biomedical waste, industrial waste, toxic gases. Control of hazardous wastes, however, there’re few studies on hazardous waste management and information. Qiujiang, together with others, has introduced the development of RFID Technology and its application in the solid waste collection and transportation 1. Deng Jianjun, Wen Xuefeng and others has raised a medical waste electric supervision system construction plan based on studies of environmental risks and management models in the international waste circulation, and researched on the medical waste control technology 2. Luosong, Zhong Nianbing and others, based on problems in the existing medical waste management, have raised a real-time tracking and supervising system on medical waste collection, transportation and control with a comprehensive use of RFID, GPS and GPRS, and elaborated design on the system structure, operation principles and communication system3.The squander mainframe market is valued at INR12 bn in 2008 and expected to reach INR33 bn in 2018.It is estimated that in 2004, the total amount of municipal waste propagated will be 1.89 billion tones, an increase of around 7.2% on 2003.The idea of making India a cleaner place to live forms the basis. The concentration is on urban cities specifically, as huge amount of waste needs to be managed in immensely areas. The paper will make the extant waste management system better by exegetical the holder authorities in time about required cleanup and change of bin. The availability of Wi-Fi in smart cities is obvious.Where the bins are lodged with the connectivity. The GSM continuously monitors full levels in bin and manholes and if there is rise above threshold, if updates the status of bins and manholes and location of them are sent to the holder through web application. Then authorities can assign sanitary workers in particular areas according to status updated and workers will change the bin accordingly.

                                                   

II.   EXISTING SYSTEM

                  The sassy bin system represented in 4 hook in mesh network and duty cycle features, to roster whether extra muddle bins are needed or there is need to shove existing muddle bins to other places. The system enables cleaning operators to better plan their cleaning schedules and routes. The Crevasse pot surveillance system represented in 5 able to pseudo and progress data persuasively and provides elucidation to watchdog gutter information. It makes the cost efficient through the medium of soup of sensors.

 

III.    PROPOSED SYSTEM

The block diagram comprises of the power supply section, GSM Module, IR sensor, Gas sensor, Wi-Fi module, Load cell sensor, IOT module and Microcontroller which is of in transmitter section and in receiver section it includes mobile for data gaining. In this circuit PIC16F877A  micro-controller to initiate all the operations through it. Load cell which is a force sensor used to unmask the gravity of the filth can depend on amount  fame for clients .Also IR sensor is used to monitor the garbage level. once garbage is get filled  by hazard waste in other words when it  exceeds the threshold value a signal will be send to microcontroller through built-in ADC. Here we have used GSM module which will send SMS to garbage collector station regarding over weighing of Can. Also this system continuously monitor toxic gases by using gas sensor .Here we set threshold value of gas sensor, once it reached threshold value it will send the message garbage collector.

 

 

 

                                                                       Fig. 1 Block Diagram and Work Flow Chart of process

 

IV. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

A.   GSM SIM 300:

           A GSM modem is a modem that provides a wireless communication. The device GSM SIM 300 used here is a dial- up modem. Unlike a normal dial-up modem, this GSM modem sends and receives data through radio waves. But a wired dial up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line connected by wires or cables. One advantage of using this is the complexity of wiring is reduced, connection is not disturbed by any physical interference, loss, etc.

 

                                                        Fig. 2. GSM module.

 

B. MICROCONTROLLER:

PIC is a family of modified Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instrument’s Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to “Peripheral Interface Controller.

 PIC’s are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. They are also commonly used in educational programming as they often come with the easy to use ‘PIC logicator’ software.

The microcontroller that has been used for this project is from PIC series. PIC microcontroller is the first RISC based microcontroller fabricated in CMOS (complimentary metal oxide semiconductor) that uses separate bus for instruction and data allowing simultaneous access of program and data memory.

 The main advantage of CMOS and RISC combination is low power consumption resulting in a very small chip size with a small pin count. The main advantage of CMOS is that it has immunity to noise than other fabrication techniques.

Various microcontrollers offer different kinds of memories. EEPROM, EPROM, FLASH etc. are some of the memories of which FLASH is the most recently developed. Technology that is used in pic16F877 is flash technology, so that data is retained  even  when the power is switched off. Easy Programming and Erasing are other features of PIC 16F877.

                                              

                                                            Fig 3  PIC16F877A  microcontroller

 

 

C. POWER SUPPLY:

        The bridge rectifier and capacitor input filter produce an unregulated DC voltage which is applied at the input of 7805.As the minimum dropout voltage is 2 V for IC 7805, the voltage applied at the input terminal should be at least 7 volts. C1 (1000 µf / 65v) is the filter capacitor and C2 and C3 (100nf) is to be connected across the regulator to improve the transient response of the regulator. Assuming the drop out voltage to be 2 volts, the minimum DC voltage across the capacitor C1 should be equal to 7 volts (at least).   

 

 

 

D. IR SENSOR:

 An IR sensor is an electronic device, that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as it detects the motion of an object. These types of sensors measure only infrared radiation, rather than emitting the radiation. In the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiations. These radiations are  not visible to our eyes, that can be detected only by an infrared sensor. The emitter is simply an IR LED (Light Emitting Diode) and the detector is simply an IR photodiode which is sensitive to IR light of the same wavelength as that emitted by the IR LED. When IR light falls on the photodiode, the resistances and these output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received.

                                             

                                                                Fig 4 IR Sensor

 

 

E.  GAS MODULE (MQ6):

               The MQ6 gas sensor is CO2 sensor which is used to detect the CO2 concentration on hazard waste. This sensor provides an analog resistive output based on alcohol concentration. When the alcohol gas exist, the sensor’s conductivity gets higher along with the gas concentration rising. It is suitable for various applications of detecting alcohol at different concentration. It is widely used in domestic alcohol gas alarm, industrial alcohol gas alarm and portable alcohol detector.

                                                   

                                                                  Fig 5 MQ6 Gas sensor

 

 

   F.  LOAD CELL SENSOR:

              A Load cell is a transducer that is used to convert a force into an electrical signal. This conversion is indirect and happens in two stages. Through a mechanical arrangement, the force being sensed deforms a strain gauge. The strain gauge measures the deformation (strain) as an electrical signal, because the strain changes the effective electrical resistance of the wire. The electrical signal output is typically in the order of a few mill volts and requires amplification by an instrumentation amplifier before it can be used. The output of the transducer can be scaled to calculate the force applied to the transducer.

 

 

G. WI-FI MODULE (ESP8266):

ESP8266EX offers a complete and self-contained WiFi networking solution; it can be used to host the application or to offload WiFi networking functions from another application processor. When ESP8266EX hosts the application, it boots up directly from an external flash. In has integrated cache to improve the performance of the system in such applications. Alternately, serving as a WiFi adapter, wireless internet access can be added to any micro controller based design with simple connectivity (SPI/SDIO or I2C/UART interface). ESP8266EX is among the most integrated WiFi chip in the industry; it integrates the antenna switches, RF balun, power amplifier, low noise receive amplifier, filters, power management modules, it requires minimal external circuitry, and the entire solution, including front-end module, is designed to occupy minimal PCB area. ESP8266EX also integrates an enhanced version of Tensilica’s L106 Diamond series 32-bit processor, with on-chip SRAM, besides the WiFi functionalities. ESP8266EX is often integrated with external sensors and other application specific devices through its GPIOs; sample codes for such applications are provided in the software development kit (SDK). Espressif Systems’ Smart Connectivity Platform (ESCP) demonstrates sophisticated system-level features include fast sleep/wake context switching for energy-efficient VoIP, adaptive radio biasing for low-power operation, advance signal processing, and spur cancellation and radio co-existence features for common cellular, Bluetooth, DDR, LVDS, LCD interference mitigation.

                                                      

                   

                                                                                            Fig 6 ESP8266EX Wi-Fi module

 

 

V.  CONCLUSION

                   Establishment of hazardous waste management information platform strengthens management in the hazardous waste transport process, reduces expenses, saves human and material resources, fills gaps of traditional waste management in the transport process control, effectively prevents losses of hazardous wastes caused by possible accidents in transportation, promotes changes in hazardous waste management from traditional ways to information methods, makes the management more scientific and accurate, provides objective and accurate bases for environmental law enforcement, as well as policy bases for enhancing waste control efforts and strength. Where the potential for human exposure exists, exposure assessment should be conducted for important pollutants that can migrate from hazardous-waste. Although few studies directly assess airborne exposures to hazardous wastes. Nevertheless, more systematic determinations of where such specific monitoring and studies might be appropriate need to be made early in the process of identifying and describing.

 

 

 

 

VII. REFERENCES

1 Qiujiang, Zhaojing, and Zhou Yitian. Application of RFID Technology in the Solid Waste Collection and Transport ManagementJ. Environmental Health Engineering, 2009,12(17):1-2.

 

2 Hao Yongli, Wen Xuefeng, Luo Qingming, He Xuwen, and Hu Hualong. Management Study in Classification and Grading of Solid Wastes of the Mining Industry in ChinaJ. Environment and Sustainable Development, 2009,6:34-36

 

3 Luosong, Zhong Nianbing, Cao Xuemei, Zhao Mingfu and Chenyuan. Medical Waste Management System Construction Based on RFID and GPRS TechnologyJ. Chongqing Institute of Technology, 2009,12(23):107-110

 

4 FachminFolianto, Yong Sheng Low, Wai Leong Yeow, “Smartbin: Smart Waste Management System”, IEEE Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), Singapore, 7-9 April 2015.

 

5 Chan H. See, Kirill V. Horoshenkov, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Yim Fun Hu, Simon J. Tait, A Low Power Wireless Sensor Network for Gully Pot Monitoring in Urban Catchments, IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL,VOL. 12, NO. 5, MAY 2012

 

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