Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

a. for a Word Searching for a word strategy

a.    Trouble Source Correction

Trouble Source Correction usually used to correct
accidental trouble source including
phonological, lexical and morphological trouble sources. For example,

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Ken : Sure
enough ten minutes later the bell r—the doorbell rang…

 

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:3)

 

In the
example above, it can be seen that Ken as the speaker knows that the use of
word ‘bell’ will confuse the receiver. In this situation, Ken stops the
production of phrase ‘bell rang’ and initiates to repair by insert the word
‘door’ before ‘bell’.

b.  
Searching
for a Word

Searching
for a word strategy helps the speaker to lengthen the time to find out the
correct words that speaker wants to mention. For example,

 

Olive           : You know Mary
uh…oh…uh…what was it…uh…

Thompson.

 

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:3)

 

The example above shows that the speaker cannot
think out a word he need for the first time of speaking, but in
the same turn-taking after the hesitation marker uh, oh, speaker can find the
right word ‘Thompson’ and initiates the repair of his utterance.

c.   
Hesitation
Pauses

In a conversation, a hesitation pauses shows
conversational silence that occurs within a turn. The
conversational silence happens when the speakers cannot express themselves or
find it difficult to express their thoughts at the moment of speaking, or when
they want to mention another thing. For example,

 

 

 

Olive           : You know Mary uh…oh…uh…what
was it…uh…

Thompson.

 

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:3)

 

The example above shows that speaker hesitates
because he cannot find the right word he is in need of. After his hesitation
pause “…”, he initiates repair with the word ‘Thompson’.

d.  
False
Starts

In a conversation, the speakers often start their utterance wrongly
compared with their thoughts, so they must repair it. This strategy helps the
speakers to gain more time to rethink about what they are saying and find the
words or phrase to repair. For
example,

 

Bea             : You never
just—you just never saw a such devotion in

your life.

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:4)

 

In the example
above, the speaker notice that the utterance does not come out as should it be. The speaker starts his/her
utterance wrongly with ‘you never just’ and initiates a repair at once in the
same turn.

e.    Immediate Lexical Changes

Immediate Lexical Changes strategy is used when the speakers want
to change the words because they havenot used exact words or they have employed some idioms that make listeners difficult to
understand.

 

Roger          : We’re just working on a different
thing, the same thing.

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:4)

 

In the example above, the speaker finds out that
the word ‘different’ is not the word he wants to mention, so ‘same’ is
immediately used to replace ‘different’ in the same turn of speaking.

f.    
Repetition

Repetition
happens when the speaker is re-saying some part of
the previous utterance. Recycling can occur without changes or it can occur
with some additions or deletions (Fox in Nemeth, 2012:213).  For example,

 

Rubin  : Well
thee uhm they must have grown a culture. You know

they must’ve I
mean how lo- he’s been in the hospital for a few days, right? Takes about a
week to grow a culture.

Kathy  : I
don’t think they grow a, I don’t
think they- grow a

culture to do a biopsy.

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:4)

 

In the example above, the ‘I
don’t think they’  is repeated
so that the speaker can have more time to think about what he/she is going to
say.

g.   
Questions
Words

Questions
words strategy such as who, where, and why usually used to get the answer from
the partner. For example,

S          : Were you uh you were in
therapy with a private doctor?

H         : yah

S          : Have you ever tried a
clinic?

H         : What?

S          : Have you ever tried a
clinic?

H         : ((sigh)) No, I don’t
want to go to a clinic.

 

 (Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:4)

 

In the example above, instead of answering S’s
question after S’s turn is finished, H initiates repair in the fourth line by
using wh-question word “what” that displays his/her trouble in hearing or
understanding S’s prior talk. In the fifth line, S repeats his prior utterance
in response to H’s repair initiation.

h.  
A
Partial Repeat of the Trouble Source Turn, plus a Question Word

A partial repeat plus a question word is
used when the receiver deal with mishearing, misunderstanding, and misspeaking
in a conversation. For example,

 

Charles       : Are they getting
married?

Paul                        : Who?

Charles       : Tim and Dave.

Paul                        : They
have bought a house together now?

(Kitzinger, 2012: 231)

 

In the conversation above, Paul, as the
receiver, does not understand where pronoun ‘they’ refers to. Therefore, Paul
initiates repair by saying ‘who?’ and Charles provides a repair solution by
saying ‘Tim and Dave’ as the elaboration.

i.     
Judging
ideas from the speaker’s utterance

Judging ideas from the speaker’s utterance strategy is used for the purpose of confirming information or repair it
to make its meaning more explicit. For
example,

S     : Why did I turn out this way?

H    : You mean homosexual?

S     : Yeah

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:4)

 

In the example above, H gives the judgement of what
S has just said for the purpose of confirming information or repair it to make
its meaning more explicit.

j.         
A
Partial Repeat of the Prior Talk with Upward Intonation

This
strategy is used to ensure that the information that heard by the receiver is
entirely true. For example,

 

S          : Well Monday, let me
think, Monday, Wednesday and Fridays”.  

I’m home
by one ten.

H         : One ten?

S          : Two o’clock. My class
ends one ten.

(Schegloff in Hoa and
Hanh, 2016:4)

 

The example above shows that H specifies the
trouble source by repeating a partial part of the prior talk ‘One ten’ with an
upward intonation in the second turn. S completes the repair by confirming the
utterance.

x

Hi!
I'm Darlene!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out